Development and reproducibility of a 3D stereophotogrammetric reference frame for facial soft tissue growth of babies and young children with and without orofacial clefts. S. Brons, M.E. van Beusichem, T.J.J. Maal, J.M. Plooij, E.M. Bronkhorst, S.J. Bergé, A.M. Kuijpers-Jagtman
Article: Development and reproducibility of a 3D stereophotogrammetric reference frame for facial soft tissue growth of babies and young children with and without orofacial clefts.
Authors: S. Brons, M.E. van Beusichem, T.J.J. Maal, J.M. Plooij, E.M. Bronkhorst, S.J. Bergé, A.M. Kuijpers-Jagtman
Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; 42(1):2-8.
Date: January 2013
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a reference frame for three dimensional (3D) facial soft tissue growth analysis in children and to determine its reproducibility. Two observers twice placed the reference frame on 39 3D-stereophotogrammetry facial images of children with orofacial clefts and control children. The observers’ performances were analyzed by calculating mean distance, distance variability, and P95 between the same facial surfaces at two different time points. Correlations between observers were analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The influence of presence of a cleft, absence of one ear in the photograph, and age on the reproducibility of the reference frame was checked using Student’s t test. Results of intraobserver comparisons showed a mean distance of <0.40 mm, distance variability of <0.51 mm, and P95 of <0.80 mm. For interobserver reliability, the mean distance was <0.52 mm, distance variability was <0.53 mm, and P95 was <1.10 mm. Presence of a cleft, age, and absence of one ear on the 3D photograph did not have a significant influence on the reproducibility of placing the reference frame. The children’s reference frame is a reproducible method to superimpose on 3D soft tissue stereophotogrammetry photographs of growing individuals with and without orofacial clefts.