Reliability and validity of measurements of facial swelling with a stereophotogrammetry optical three-dimensional scanner. WJ van der Meer, PU Dijkstra, A Visser, A Vissink, Y Ren.
Article: Reliability and validity of measurements of facial swelling with a stereophotogrammetry optical three-dimensional scanner
Authors: WJ van der Meer, PU Dijkstra, A Visser, A Vissink, Y Ren
Source: British Journal of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery
Date: September 2014
Abstract: Volume changes in facial morphology can be assessed using the 3dMDface® stereo-optical 3-dimensional scanner, which uses visible light and has a short scanning time. Its reliability and validity have not to our knowledge been investigated for the assessment of facial swelling. Our aim therefore was to assess them for measuring changes in facial contour, in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-four healthy volunteers with and without an artificial swelling of the cheek were scanned, twice in the morning and twice in the afternoon (in vivo measurements). A mannequin head was scanned 4 times with and without various externally applied artificial swellings (in vitro measurements). The changes in facial contour caused by the artificial swelling were measured as the change in volume of the cheek (with and without artificial swelling in place) using 3dMDvultus® software. In vivo and in vitro reliability expressed in intraclass correlations were 0.89 and 0.99, respectively. In vivo and in vitro repeatability coefficients were 5.9 and 1.3ml, respectively. The scanner underestimated the volume by 1.2ml (95% CI -0.9 to 3.4) in vivo and 0.2ml (95% CI 0.02 to 0.4) in vitro. The 3dMD stereophotogrammetry scanner is a valid and reliable tool to measure volumetric changes in facial contour of more than 5.9ml and for the assessment of facial swelling.