Lips are the main part of the lower facial soft tissue and are vital to forensic facial approximation (FFA). Facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) and linear measurements in three dimensions are used in the quantitative analysis of lip morphology. With most FSTT analysis methods, the surface of soft tissue is unexplicit. Our study aimed to determine FSTT and explore the relationship between the hard and soft tissues of lips in different skeletal occlusions based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) and 3dMD images in a Chinese population.
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This study applied the transfer learning model with a convolutional neural network based on 3-dimensional (3D) contour line features to evaluate the facial symmetry before and after OGS. A total of 158 patients were recruited in a retrospective cohort study for the assessment and comparison of facial symmetry before and after OGS from January 2018 to March 2020. Three-dimensional facial photographs were captured by the 3dMD face system in a natural head position, with eyes looking forward, relaxed facial muscles, and habitual dental occlusion before and at least 6 months after surgery.
Dentoskeletal and soft-tissue treatment changes were examined objectively by cephalometric analysis and stereophotogrammetry, respectively. Pre- and posttreatment profile views were evaluated subjectively by orthodontists and laypeople using the 7-point Likert scale. Intra- and intergroup comparisons for the repeated measurements were performed with 2-way variance analysis. Bonferroni test was used for multiple comparisons (P ≤0.05).
With more than 20 years of acknowledgment in peer-reviewed investigative research publications, 3dMD has become the near-ground-truth 3D dense-surface shape information benchmark for human subject input applications demanding image precision and workflow efficiency. Here are a few of these Applications…