Date: June 2011.
Source: Breast Cancer (Auckl). 5:131-42. doi: 10.4137/BCBCR.S7140.
Abstract: In this study we evaluate the influence of subject pose during image acquisition on quantitative analysis of breast morphology. Three (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) images of the torso of 12 female subjects in two different poses; (1) hands-on-hip (HH) and (2) hands-down (HD) were obtained. In order to quantify the effect of pose, we introduce a new measure; the 3D pBRA (Percentage Breast Retraction Assessment) index, and validate its use against the 2D pBRA index. Our data suggests that the 3D pBRA index is linearly correlated with the 2D counterpart for both of the poses, and is independent of the localization of fiducial points within a tolerance limit of 7 mm. The quantitative assessment of 3D asymmetry was found to be invariant of subject pose. This study further corroborates the advantages of 3D stereophotogrammetry over 2D photography. Problems with pose that are inherent in 2D photographs are avoided and fiducial point identification is made easier by being able to panoramically rotate the 3D surface enabling views from any desired angle.

Article: 3D Symmetry Measure Invariant to Subject Pose During Image Acquisition. 
Authors: Manas Kawale, Juhun Lee, Shi Yin Leung, Michelle C Fingeret, Gregory P Reece, Melissa A Crosby, Elisabeth K Beahm, Mia K Markey, and Fatima A Merchant.