Date: September 2012.
Source: Seminars in Orthodontics; Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 187-192.
Abstract: Three-dimensional surface imaging is a popular technique among orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons. It allows the capture of the face in 3 dimensions and the measurement of distances, surfaces, and volumes. Many devices and analyses have been developed to reconstruct and accurately quantify the different components of the face. These devices are either based on landmarks defined by 3-dimensional coordinates or on the overall facial topography. The following article will go over the most commonly used systems and describe some data analysis methods and their application to clinical situations.
Article: Methods of Measuring the Three-Dimensional Face.
Authors: Nada Souccar and Chung How Kau, Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Dentistry, Birmingham, AL.