Date: April 2015.
Source: Medical, Engineering and Physics, Volume 37, Issue 4, Pages 375–383.
Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging of breasts is usually done with the patient in an upright position, which does not permit comparison of changes in breast morphology with changes in position of the torso. In theory, these limitations may be eliminated if the 3D camera system could remain fixed relative to the woman’s torso as she is tilted from 0 to 90°. We mounted a 3dMDtorso imaging system onto a bariatric tilt table to image breasts at different tilt angles. The images were validated using a rigid plastic mannequin and the metrics compared to breast metrics obtained from five subjects with diverse morphology. The differences between distances between the same fiducial marks differed between the supine and upright positions by less than 1% for the mannequin, whereas the differences for distances between the same fiducial marks on the breasts of the five subjects differed significantly and could be correlated with body mass index and brassiere cup size for each position change. We show that a tilt table-3D imaging system can be used to determine quantitative changes in the morphology of ptotic breasts when the subject is tilted to various angles.

  • A 3D camera-tilt table (system) was used to image breasts at different angles.
  • We describe the methods used to validate the imaging system.
  • The system can determine quantitative changes in breast morphology

Article: 3D surface imaging of the human female torso in upright to supine positions.
Authors: Gregory P. Reece, Fatima Merchant, Johnny Andon, Hamed Khatam, K. Ravi-Chandar, June Weston, Michelle C. Fingeret, Chris Lane, Kelly S Duncan, and Mia K. Markey.