Date: June 2020.
Source: Thesis. University of British Columbia Library. Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies (Craniofacial Science). Master of Science.
Introduction: Craniofacial morphology has been recognized as an important factor in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Stereophotogrammetry eliminates many of the limitations of traditional craniofacial anthropometric methods.
Objective: To utilize stereophotogrammetry to determine whether associations exist between 3D facial morphometric parameters of children aged 2-17 years, and their risk of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) as evidenced by their Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) score. Additionally, to compare facial morphology of patients at high risk of SDB and those at lower risk.
Methods: 180 patients from the Otolaryngology Clinic at BC Children’s Hospital were recruited for this cross-sectional study. 3D facial images were acquired using the 3dMD Face system, and linear and angular measurements were calculated. Patients’ SDB risk was evaluated using the PSQ. Linear regression models were used to determine associations between PSQ scores and patient demographic and facial morphometric variables. 3D morphometric analysis was performed to assess for differences in facial morphology in subjects at high risk for SDB (PSQ score ≥ 0.33) and those at lower risk (PSQ score < 0.33).
Results: 33.9% of the patients scored at high risk for SDB. No statistically significant associations were found between PSQ score and any 3D facial morphometric parameter. In addition, PSQ score was not found to be associated with gender, age, age:gender interaction, or body mass index. Geometric morphometric analysis found no difference in facial shape in those at high risk for SDB and those at lower risk.
Conclusions: No linear or angular measurements assessed in this study were found to have a strong correlation with PSQ score. Similarly, age, gender, its interaction, and BMI were not found to have an effect on PSQ. Geometric morphometric analysis found no difference in facial shape in those at high risk and those at lower risk of SDB as evidenced by PSQ. A pediatric patient at risk of SDB may not display obvious craniofacial attributes, thus screening for SDB should be primarily based on patient signs and symptoms.

Thesis: 3D Facial Morphology and Risk of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children.
Authors: Felix Yun Hei Wu.