Date: September 2020.
Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics, Volume 182, Issue 9, Pages 2102-2109.
Abstract: To describe special facial features of children with Williams syndrome in China by using method of three‐dimensional craniofacial anthropometry. Using three‐dimensional stereo photogrammetric device, 14 craniofacial anthropometric measurements were performed and five indices were calculated in 52 children with Williams syndrome and 208 age and sex matched controls of Han Chinese ethnicity. Except intercanthal width, mouth breadth, morphological face height, nasal height‐breadth index, nasal breadth‐depth index, morphological ear index, the Williams syndrome group under 3 years old were smaller than the control group in the other 12 variables. Compared with the control group, the Williams syndrome group aged 3–5 years old had smaller biocular breadth, nasal length, nasorostral angle, bitragal breadth, ear width, morphological ear index and face depth. The Williams syndrome group aged above 6 years old had smaller biocular breadth, nasal breadth, bitragal breadth, ear width, ear length and face depth than the control group. The craniofacial variability index of the Williams syndrome group was greater than the control group. Greater variation was found among children with Williams syndrome than normal in China, specifically at eye, nose, ear and face shape, which demonstrate the usefulness of three‐dimensional stereo photogrammetric analysis in supporting accurate diagnose of the patient with Williams syndrome.

Article: A study on facial features of children with Williams syndrome in China based on three‐dimensional anthropometric measurement technology.
Authors: Chai Ji, Dan Yao, Ming‐Yan Li, Wei‐Jun Chen, Sheng‐Liang Lin, Zheng‐Yan Zhao. The Children’s Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Health, Zhejiang, Hangzhou, China.