Date: September 2020.
Source: Scientific Report 10, 15346.
Abstract: Craniosynostosis is a condition in which cranial sutures fuse prematurely, causing problems in normal brain and skull growth in infants. To limit the extent of cosmetic and functional problems, swift diagnosis is needed. The goal of this study is to investigate if a deep learning algorithm is capable of correctly classifying the head shape of infants as either healthy controls, or as one of the following three craniosynostosis subtypes; scaphocephaly, trigonocephaly or anterior plagiocephaly. In order to acquire cranial shape data, 3dMD stereophotographs were made during routine pre-operative appointments of scaphocephaly (n = 76), trigonocephaly (n = 40) and anterior plagiocephaly (n = 27) patients. 3dMD Stereophotographs of healthy infants (n = 53) were made between the age of 3–6 months. The cranial shape data was sampled and a deep learning network was used to classify the cranial shape data as either: healthy control, scaphocephaly patient, trigonocephaly patient or anterior plagiocephaly patient. For the training and testing of the deep learning network, a stratified tenfold cross validation was used. During testing 195 out of 196 3dMD stereophotographs (99.5%) were correctly classified. This study shows that trained deep learning algorithms, based on 3D stereophotographs, can discriminate between craniosynostosis subtypes and healthy controls with high accuracy.

Article: Combining deep learning with 3D stereophotogrammetry for craniosynostosis diagnosis.
Authors: Guido de Jong, Elmar Bijlsma, Jene Meulstee, Myrte Wennen, Erik van Lindert, Thomas Maal, René Aquarius, and Hans Delye. Radboudumc, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.