Date: October 2021.
Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. doi:10.1177/10556656211043739.
Objective: Positional plagiocephaly and/or brachycephaly (PPB) is associated with cognition, motor, and other developmental outcomes, but little is known about the social-behavioral adjustment of children with PPB. The primary aim of this study was to compare the social-behavioral development of preschool and school-age children with and without PPB and to examine the potential moderating effects of PPB severity on group differences.
Design: Two hundred twenty children with a history of PPB and 164 controls participated in at least one behavioral assessment at 4-11 months, 18 months, 36 months, and 7 years. The frequencies of observed problem behaviors and social competence were estimated using the Child Behavior Checklist Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5), Caregiver-Teacher Report Form(C-TRF), CBCL/6-18, and Teacher Report Form.
Results: Children with PPB were similar to controls on the internalizing, externalizing, or total problems composites. At 7 years, CBCL/6-18 total competence scores were significantly lower in children with histories of PPB than controls. In analyses stratified by PPB severity, we found that children with moderate/severe PPB had slightly higher scores on the C-TRF internalizing scale at 36 months and lower total competence scores at age 7 years. Children who had a history of mild PPB were similar to controls on all outcomes.
Conclusions: This study is the first to examine social and behavioral outcomes in a large cohort of children with and without a history of PPB. We found limited evidence of an association between PPB and parent and teacher-reported social-emotional and behavioral adjustment through early school-age.

Article: Behavioral and Social Functioning of Children With and Without Positional Plagiocephaly: Late Infancy to School Age.
Authors: Cindy Ola, PhD, Matthew L. Speltz, PhD, Brent R. Collett, PhD. Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.