Date: April 2022.
Source: Child’s Nervous System, Volume 38, pages 781–788.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the craniofacial and aesthetic characteristics of adult metopic and sagittal craniosynostosis patients operated on in early childhood compared to controls. The goal was to find objective measurements that would correlate with the patient’s subjective self-evaluation of their own cosmetic appearance.
Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 49 patients from whom 41 had premature fusion of the sagittal and in 8 of metopic suture. There were 65 age and gender matching controls from The Finish National Register. The 3D photogrammetric models were created from all patients and controls. The images were analysed using Rapidform 2006. Facial landmarks were set by the standard Farkas points. Facial symmetry parameters were calculated by using the landmarks and the mirror shell of the face. Aesthetic evaluation was done from standard photographs using panels. Subjective satisfaction with one’s own appearance was evaluated using questionnaires.
Results: Patients had the greatest asymmetry in the forehead area when compared to controls (symmetry percentage 59% versus 66%, p = 0.013). In the control group, the gap between the eyes was smaller than in the case group, resulting in an absolute 2 mm difference (p = 0.003). The area of the chin and the landmarks were more located on the left side in the patient group, resulting in up to a 1.1 mm difference between the groups (p = 0.003). Only a weak association was found between craniofacial symmetry and appearance evaluations.
Conclusions: Patients operated on because of sagittal and metopic synostoses were found to have facial asymmetry at long follow-up. However, the differences were < 3 mm and not clinically important. The long-term aesthetical outcome of the surgery performed because of sagittal or metopic craniosynostosis based on the 3D image evaluation was good.

Article: Craniofacial characteristics and cosmetic satisfaction of patients with sagittal and metopic synostosis: a case–control study using 3D photogrammetric imaging.
Authors: Anja Svalina, Ville Vuollo, Willy Serlo, Juha-Jaakko Sinikumpu, Anna-Sofia Silvola, Niina Salokorpi, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.