Date: May 2022.
Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 17, 1201–1211 (2022).
Objective: Lack of biomechanical force model of soft tissue hinders the development of virtual surgical simulation in maxillofacial surgery. In this study, a physical model of facial soft tissue based on real biomechanical parameters was constructed, and a haptics-enabled virtual surgical system was developed to simulate incision-making process on facial soft tissue and to help maxillofacial surgery training.
Materials and Methods: CT data of a 25-year-old female patient were imported into Mimics software to reconstruct 3D models of maxillofacial soft and skeletal tissues. 3dMD stereo-photo of the patient was fused on facial surface to include texture information. Insertion and cutting parameters of facial soft tissue measured on fresh cadavers were integrated, and a maxillofacial biomechanical force model was established. Rapid deformation and force feedback were realized through localized deformation algorithm and axis aligned bounding box (AABB)-based collision detection. The virtual model was validated quantitatively and qualitatively.
Results: A patient-specific physical model composed of skeletal and facial soft tissue was constructed and embedded in the virtual surgical system. Insertion and cutting in different regions of facial soft tissue were simulated using omega 6, and real-time feedback force was recorded. The feedback force was consistent with acquired force data of experiments conducted on tissue specimen. Real-time graphic and haptic feedback were realized. The mean score of the system performance was 3.71 given by surgeons in evaluation questionnaires.
Conclusions: The maxillofacial physical model enabled operators to simulate insertion and cutting on facial soft tissue with realization of realistic deformation and haptic feedback. The combination of localized deformation algorithm and AABB-based collision detection improved computational efficiency. The proposed virtual surgical system demonstrated excellent performance in simulation and training of incision-making process.

Article: Development of a maxillofacial virtual surgical system based on biomechanical parameters of facial soft tissue.
Authors: Mengjia Cheng, Yu Zhuang, Hanjiang Zhao, Meng Li, Lingfeng Fan, Hongbo Yu, Department of Oral and Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.