Date: May 2022.
Source: Biology, 11, 719.
Abstract: The reproducibility of facial expressions has been previously explored, however, there is no detailed information regarding the reproducibility of lip morphology forming a social smile. In this study, we recruited 93 young adults, aged 21–35 years old, who agreed to participate in two consecutive study visits four weeks apart. On each visit, they were asked to perform a social smile, which was captured on a 3D facial image acquired using the 3dMD camera system. Assessments of self-perceived smile attractiveness were also performed using a VAS scale. Lip morphology, including smile shape, was described using 62 landmarks and semi-landmarks. A Procrustes superimposition of each set of smiling configurations (first and second visit) was performed and the Euclidean distance between each landmark set was calculated. A linear regression model was used to test the association between smile consistency and self-perceived smile attractiveness. The results show that the average landmark distance between sessions did not exceed 1.5 mm, indicating high repeatability, and that females presented approximately 15% higher smile consistency than males (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between smile consistency and self-perceived smile attractiveness (n2 = 0.015; p = 0.252), when controlling for the effect of sex and age.

Article: Smile Reproducibility and Its Relationship to Self-Perceived Smile Attractiveness.
Authors: Denitsa Dobreva, Nikolaos Gkantidis, Demetrios Halazonetis, Carlalberta Verna, Georgios Kanavakis. Department of Pediatric Oral Health and Orthodontics, University Center for Dental Medicine UZB, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Department of Orthodontics, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.