Date: June 2022.
Source: Genes 2022, 13, 1161.
Abstract: Craniosynostosis are a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions characterized by the premature fusion of the skull bones. The most common forms of craniosynostosis are Crouzon, Apert and Pfeiffer syndromes. They differ from each other in various additional clinical manifestations, e.g., syndactyly is typical of Apert and rare in Pfeiffer syndrome. Their inheritance is autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance and one of the main genes responsible for these syndromes is FGFR2, mapped on chromosome 10, encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. We report an FGFR2 gene variant in a mother and daughter who present with different clinical features of Crouzon syndrome. The daughter is more severely affected than her mother, as also verified by a careful study of the face and oral cavity. The c.1032G>A transition in exon 8, already reported as a synonymous p.Ala344 = variant in Crouzon patients, also activates a new donor splice site leading to the loss of 51 nucleotides and the in-frame removal of 17 amino acids. We observed lower FGFR2 transcriptional and translational levels in the daughter compared to the mother and healthy controls. A preliminary functional assay and a molecular modeling added further details to explain the discordant phenotype of the two patients.

Article: Mother and Daughter Carrying of the Same Pathogenic Variant in FGFR2 with Discordant Phenotype.
Authors: Filomena Lo Vecchio, Elisabetta Tabolacci, Veronica Nobile, Maria Grazia Pomponi, Roberta Pietrobono, Giovanni Neri, Simona Amenta, Ettore Candida, Cristina Grippaudo, Ettore Lo Cascio, Alessia Vita, Federica Tiberio, Alessandro Arcovito, Wanda Lattanzi, Maurizio Genuardi, Pietro Chiurazzi, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy.