Date: January 2023.
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery-Global Open 11(1):p e4762. | DOI: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000004762
Background: Facial expressions are ubiquitous in communication. Therefore, assessment of mimic function is essential in facial surgery, but no reference standards are currently available. This prospective study aims to create reference values of three-dimensional landmark displacement for different sex and age groups.
Methods: Three-dimensional photographs were taken from healthy subjects in rest, maximum closed smile, and pouting. Displacement for both exercises of perioral landmarks was analyzed with MATLAB as absolute displacement and as the ratio of mouth width. Additionally, displacement in three planes was analyzed for each landmark. Averages were calculated for both genders in four age groups: 4–8, 8–12, 12–16, and >16 years.
Results: In total, 328 subjects were included. Oral landmarks predominantly moved forward and backward for both exercises. Nasal landmarks predominantly moved vertically. Growing up, oral landmark displacement decreased for smiling, whereas nasal landmark displacement increased. For pouting, oral landmark displacement increased while growing up, whereas nasal landmark displacement decreased.
Conclusions: The present study creates reference values for movement of perioral structures for different sex and age groups, for two facial expressions. These data are of great value for the assessment of mimic function and give insight into the development of facial animation over time.

Article: The Average Facial Expressions: A Range of Motion Analysis for Different Sex and Age Groups.
Authors: Hilde Schutte, MD; Marvick SM Muradin, MD, DMD, PhD; Freek Bielevelt, MSc; Karlien Seubring, MD, DMD; Ronald LAW Bleys, MD, PhD; Antoine JWP Rosenberg, MD, DMD, PhD. Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht and Radboud University Medical Centre, Radboudumc 3D Lab, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.